Dr.eye: October 21, 1824, British Liz ( Leeds) Bricklayer A general man then of city (J.Aspdin) Get the letter of patent of " Portland cement " No. Dr.eye: 5022 of Britain, thus become the immortal cement inventor at one blow.
The " Portland cement " manufacturing approach narrated on his letter of patent is: "Smash the lime stone into the thin powder, cooperate with a certain amount clay, mix and become mud evenly with artificial or machinery after mixing water. Put the mud on the plate, heat drily. It is in bulk to attack the universe material, pack into limekiln is it cook to forge, cook carbon dioxide all ease produce to lime stone. Burning piece cool and is it rub it detailed to break and then, make cement after is it burn to forging. Put into a small amount of moisture while using the cement, mix and stir into the mortar of the proper consistency, can apply to all kinds of working occasions. ".
Cement this water harden color after similar to area for building of building stones, Portland of Britain, called it " Portland cement ".
Have more general to stare at Wakefied in Britain build the first Portland cement plant As then. Later, son Grateshead in Britain of him build a factory, build another factory in Germany in 1856, and where to spend his old age.
A's then general father and son Ding keeps to the production method of " Portland cement " secret for a long time, has taken various kinds of cryptosecurities: The high wall of the building around the factory, no one can enter the factory without permission of their father and son; Get about in the location where workers do not receive beyond one's own work position; In order to make false appearance, often hold the copper sulphate or other powder material with the plate, spread it on the universe material while installing the kiln.
" Portland cement " manufacturing approach which A narrates on the general man's letter of patent then, not having basic difference with Foster's " British cement ", it is all subject to that the carbon dioxide totally volatilize in the supplies to forge temperature of burning. Very obvious, Apps man production technology write coming out " Portland cement " at letter of patent for secret reason. Apps man will certainly adopt higher forging the temperature of cooking of the production in factory, otherwise will not have color such as building stones in areas of Portland after the cement is hardenned, its product may not have so high competitiveness either.
But according to letter of patent contained content and relevant materials, Apps cube fails to master " Portland cement " precise cooking into temperature and correct raw materials matching, so the product quality that his factory produces out is very unstable.
In Britain, another of era study for cement talent Johnson & Johnson with Apps one Tong Ding (I.C.Johnson) . He British swan valley Messrs. Dr.eye: White and Co. Dr.eye: manager, make " Rome cement " and " British cement " specially. One year, Johnson & Johnson one chance of chance find, is it is it is it contain certain amounts of cement of vitreous body cook one to get to cook to forge among experiment, it is rigid to have very good water after rubing thin. Find also in addition, in cook thing contain lime stone can make cement fracture after hardenning. According to the discovery beyond these, Johnson & Johnson has confirmed two primary conditions made of the cement: Cook temperature of kiln must is it is it cook yuan suck the vitreous body and blackish green of a certain amount to make to high enough first; The second is that the proportion of raw materials must be correct and regular, burning can't include the excessive lime within the thing, can't fracture after the cement is hardenned. Condition these guarantee " Portland cement " quality, solve Apps quality unstable problem that man can't solve. From then on, the basic parameter that the modern cement was produced had already found.
In 1909, when Johnson & Johnson was at the venerable age of 98, put forward the appeal to British government, say the cement which he made in 1845 is real " Portland cement ", Apps man make quality steady cement, can't call him the inventor of " Portland cement ". But, British government agree appeal of Johnson & Johnson, keep Apps man have " Portland cement " decision of patent right still. Britain, and counterpart of Germany work in Johnson & Johnson have high appraisal very, think he invention in " Portland cement " make indelible important contribution.
Contemporary building grain " Portland cement " (portland cement) Born slowly in the west like this, was setting foot on the improved journey constantly at the same time.