The method is put the flowing water and sampled in the undertaking
First, method outline
This method department with manual quarrying water equipment adopt cause set the sample of the flowing water free automatically.
Second, scope of application
This method is suitable for the collection of the flowing water is put in undertaking, sewage sewerage system and building sewage treatment facilities.
(1) The apparatus should be avoided mutual pollution to sample.
(2) Await measuring thing may absorb container wall, container wall might is it is it await measuring from thing to the water sample to appear to dissolve too partly.
(3) The plastic sample bottle may cause the pollution of two formic acid ester of neighbor benzene.
(4) If heavy metal project uses and includes the cover of the heavy metal lining, may cause the pollution sample by the fact that dissolve out.
(5) The activity of the microorganism will influence the balance among nitrate, inferior nitrate, ammonia, lower the content of the phenol and biochemical oxygen demand, make the sulphate reduce for the sulphide, I reduce chlorine into the chlorine salt; Sulphide, inferior sulphate, inferior iron ion, iodine ion and cyanide,etc. Dr.eye: but lower its content via oxidizing.
Fourth, equipment and material
(1) Orient the equipment: Can is it is it is it stand the equipment of the coordinate to examine to sample to confirm, such as the global positioning system ( GPS) .
(2) Sample equipment
1. Quarry water equipment manually: The sample container or drum which enclose the long handle wait for the adjustable sampling device or the complexion water equipment analogous to the function, consult the example like figures.
2. Quarry water equipment automatically:
(1)Catch a kind of equipment automatically: Can install the low-temperature refrigerating equipment additional in case of necessity in accordance with facilities gathering the water sample automatically of volume amount set up in advance.
(2)Mix a kind of complexion water equipment automatically: Automatic ration mixes the sample equipment that kind and sample low temperature refrigerated the function. Need to add the function of keeping pharmaceutical automatically in case of necessity.
(3) Filter: Including the plastics or the Fluorine dragon's regular seat of iron and straining the membrane. The material which strains the membrane is the polycarbonate ( Polycarbonate) Or acetic acid fibre ( Cellulose acetate) ,The aperture is 0.4 (is it analyse person who dissolve that water sample filter to spend to support) to 0.45 ¦Ì m .
(4) Detecting instrument: (look at needing to use)
1. Thermometer: The minimum scale needs to be up to 0.1 degrees Centigrade.
2.PH is counted: Under 25 degrees Centigrade, its minimum scale needs to be up to unit 0.01, enclose the temperature compensation device.
3. The electric conduction degree is counted: Enclose the temperature compensation device.
4. Dissolve oxygen to count.
(5) Sample container: Choose the proper capacity in the detection method of the thing or the attached list listed water sample requirement in accordance with awaiting measuring.
1. Plastic bottle or the vial.
2. Brown ( Brown) Color plastic bottle or the vial: Gather total organic carbon, many chlorine unite benzene and agriculture chemical,etc. at the sample, enclose iron Fluorine dragon spacer.
3. Brown ( Brown) Color vial: Invite 40 mL, the empty spiral of attached middle school overlays and iron Fluorine dragon's spacer (volatility organic matter samples to use) .
4. Aseptic boron silicon vial or aseptic plastics: Above capacity 120 mL overlays the container (1 note) ,Or the city sells aseptic bag ( The cup, bottle) .
5.BOD bottle: Capacity 300 mL, rubs the sand mouth glass bottle lid (the amount of oxygen dissolved examines the timing alternative to use)
(6) Sample refrigerating equipment, the norm refrigerated is like the attached list.
(1) Reagent water.
(2) Keep the pharmaceutical: Consult ' detection method general provisions of water quality - keep one (NIEA W102) ' await measuring regulation, thing of detection method each.
(3) PH counts the standard and buffers the solution: Consult ' index of thickness of hydrogen and ion (pH value) of water Determine the method - Electrode law (NIEA W424) ' regulation.
(4) The electric conduction degree counts standard solution: One degree of survey method of electric conduction - the electric conduction degree counts law (NIEA W203) in consult ' water ' regulation.
Sixth, sample and keep
(1) Demand for the detection method of the thing that and await measuring in accordance with the purpose of sampling, and plan the proper sample way, in order to gather enough representativeness water sample. (note is 2)
(2) Sample in the way: Can generally adopt and catch kind (Grab samples) Or mix kind (Composite samples) Way:
1. Catch kind it in order that the mouth has flowed putting the putting of flowing water ( The place) Gather single sample, can is it sample twinkling of an eye thickness of pollutant at that time to react.
2. Mix kind it in order that the mouth has flowed putting the putting of flowing water ( The place) After gathering samples, mix samples by way of ration, the average thickness that can react within some time or the space. Mixing kind can mix a lot of single samples or gather samples for the intermittence of the sampling device automatically, regarded as a sample after mixing. Seldom suitable for the measuring project of mixing kind and divided into:
(1)Project that must be measured live: Including total my chlorine, temperature, pH value,etc..
(2)Whether sample long pot-life project of 24 hours most. Include six price chromium, sample and include cyanide of the sulphide, ammonia nitrogen (electrode law) , the soda is spent etc..
(3)Can't stir and mix the project of kind: Electric conduction degree, dissolving oxygen, sulphide, oil, total organic carbon and volatility organic matter,etc..
(5)Enumerate and belong to unstable difficult to mix even project suit mixing kind also while being other.
(3) Before sampling, sample the container (or the drum) And sample keep container should examine according to environment ware wash and is it guide to correct (NIEA-PA106) Or the listed attached list washes the way to wash.
(4) Quarry water equipment and sample manually:
1. Sample container or drum of the sampling device, after washing two, three times for the water sample that plans to quarry, adopt sufficient putting the flowing water and water sample, pack the sample container into; If go on when sampling by container with sample, sample this container can keep the container as the sample.
2. If needing partial shipment sample, should adopt sufficient water sample do partial shipment after mixing even.
3. Besides collection of the volatility organic matter sample, sample container can reserve proper space of volume think the buffer area where the sample expands while transporting.
(5) Quarry water equipment and sample automatically:
1. Will wash the clean sample quarrying water equipment automatically and in charge of putting while sampling to put the flowing water, and the position that is in charge of being put and being polluted will be collected.
2. Is it sample bottle and is it take a sample or mix terms of kind automatically to set up to link, start equipment sample.
3. After sampling, take out the sample bottle, cover closely on the bottle lid.
(6) When gather and mix samples, can accord with the conditions of the time, place, thickness of sampling, the ration is mixed. When necessary, need it to each sub sample (Sub-sample) Analyse separately, in order to obtain most heavy and minimum thickness value that environment order this, understand it await measuring change of the thing distribute situation and characteristic.
(7) If can't examine at once after sampling, water sample must in accordance with await measuring thing detection method and save method of attached list is it keep so as to delay their go bad to go on then; Is it go on survey of water sample of dissolving etc. to need, need on is it is it is it punish to filter to go on live to sample.
(8) After sticking the sample the sample label and paper strip seal, move in the sample refrigerating equipment and keep and transport; The sample transports its sample of course to keep to the case planted agent and put sufficient ice-cubes and water and form and ice the water bath (note is 3) Or other proper methods, in order to accord with awaiting measuring the detection method of the thing or the save method regulation of the attached list.
(9) While adopting one kind of ways of mixing and sampling, the sub sample needs to refrigerate, regard collection time of the last stature sample as the sample time to mix all products.
(10) Note down the sampled point coordinate while sampling, serial number of the sample, date and time, sample kind and quantity, analyse project, sample way, sample apparatus, sample container, keep way, sample personnel and is it measure testing result of project information to carry out live.
Eighth, the result is dealt with
Ninth, quality is controlled
(1) To when transporting, should pack proper to put on proper to transport container all sample.
(2) The samples adopted should have sample labels and paper strip seals.
1. The content of the sample label should include at least:
(1)Serial number of the sample.
(2)Names of persons who sample and affiliated unit name.
(3)Time of sampling.
(4)Place of sampling.
(5)Add and keep the pharmaceutical.
(6)Measure the project.
2. Paper strip seal of the sample: Sample container should add paper strip seal, to glue copy must make person who opens container must tear paper strip seal person paper strip seal after sampling; Personnel should also sign on the paper strip seal to sample live.
(3) While sampling, it needs to adopt the proper blank sample to look at:
1. Blank sample of scene: Is it await measuring reagent water of thing put into with splendid attire awaiting measuring sample the same sample in the container to include among checkout room, is it take to place of sampling to screw bottle lid on, Kaifeng combine simulation sample the course in scene, but does not sample actually; After sealing, and then with await measuring sample bring the checkout room back meanwhile. By the analysis result of the blank sample of scene, can sentence to and know samples are sampling the course is suffering pollution.
2. Blank sample of equipment: The sample equipment used at the scene is after washing, the reagent water drip washing of the thing for not including awaiting measuring, collect and take second place to the person who drenches lotion of the reagent water. By the analysis result of the blank sample of equipment, can sentence to and know whether the equipment suffers pollution to sample.
3. Transport the blank sample: Is it await measuring reagent water of thing put into with splendid attire awaiting measuring sample the same sample in the container to include among checkout room, screw the bottle lid on and take it to the place of sampling, but does not unseal at the scene. Transported the analysis result of the blank sample, can sentence to and know samples are transporting the course and suffering pollution.
Tenth, precision and accuracy:
11, reference material
(1) Japanese Standards Association, Sampling methods for Industrial Water and Industrial Wastewater, K 0094, , pp. 682 - 735. JIS, Tokyo, 1994.
(2) Administration's environment of environmental protection of executive organ examines one, method that the water quality of drinking water samples - Running water system, W101.54A, 2005.
(3) Administration's environment of environmental protection of executive organ examines one, the sample of environmental checkout room is gathered and keeps the homework to guide, PA102, 2004.
(4) Administration's environment of environmental protection of executive organ examines one, detection method general provisions of water quality, W102.51C, 2005.
(5) Administration's environment of environmental protection of executive organ examines one, the general rule, W104.51C, 2005 that rivers and creeks, lake and reservoir water quality sample.
(6) American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Guide for Sampling Wastewater With Automatic Samplers, D 6538 - 00, pp. 604- 609, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. ,2005.
(7) American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Practices for Sampling Water, D 3370 - 82, pp. 161 - 169. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.,1991.
(8) USEPA, Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation of Water and Wastewater, Method EPA 600 / 4 82 - 029, 1982.
1. The sterilization way can be consulted ' the environmental microorganism measures the general rule - the bacterium (NIEA E101) Regulation.
2. Have toxicity perhaps sample itself adopted, should pay attention to potential danger when sampling, and with safe for one person who do in the test.
3. Should avoid using the universe ice, because the universe ice know the refrigeration sample, and influence pH value of the sample.
Pursue, the manual water quarrying device
Attached list Sample and keep the method in various kinds of inspection projects
First, bacillary standard
Measure the project Suggestion requirement of water sample ( mL) Hold The device is kept the method is kept longest
The bacillus group stipulates bag or the container water sample after sterilizing aseptically when contain my chlorine in accordance with every method, should join right amount sodium thiosulphate in the aseptic container. Water sample temperature should maintain and is below 10 degrees Centigrade and can't be frozen while transporting, but should maintain 4 ¡À to keep temperature for 2 24 hours in the laboratory
Second, physics standard
Measure the project Suggestion requirement of water sample ( mL) Container Protect Store the longest pot-life of method
Temperature 1000- - analyse at once
Real color 100 colour is it clean to use and by reagent plastic bottle or vial that water wash, the bottle will wash two to the dark place three times with the water sample planning to gather to sample before taking a sample, 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration of 4 ¡À are analysed within shortest time as much as possible; If unable to analyse immediately, the water sample should be stored and transported and kept in 4 degrees Centigrade of dark place, and on Finish analysing in 48 hours
Third, chemistry standard
Project Suggestion requirement of water sample ( mL) Container Protect Store the longest pot-life of method
Index of thickness of hydrogen and ion 300 glass or plastic bottle -Analyse at once
Total phosphorus 100 Israel Clean vial of 1 + 1 hot hydrochloric acid
Add sulphuric acid make water sample pH 7 days (if measure the straight phosphate, needn't add the sulphuric acid, and must measure during 48 hours)
Total nitrogen (1 note) (1 note) (1 note) (1 note)
Biochemical oxygen demand 1000 glass or the plastic bottle dark place, 4 ¡À is 48 hours for 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration
Chemical oxygen demand 100 glass or plastic bottle add sulphuric acid make pH Suspend 500 solid resist acid glass or plastic bottle dark place, 2 7 days such as refrigeration such as 4 ¡À
Total my chlorine 500 glass or plastic bottle -Analyse at once
Fluoride 300 plastic bottle dark place, 2 7 days such as refrigeration such as 4 ¡À
Nitrate nitrogen 100 glass or plastic bottle dark place, 2 one hour such as refrigeration such as 4 ¡À (whether water sample of chlorine has one day already)
Ammonia nitrogen 500 glass or plastic bottle add sulphuric acid make pH
Project Suggestion requirement of water sample ( mL) Container Protect Store the longest pot-life of method
Straight phosphate ( Calculate with three price phosphoric acid roots) 100 Israel Clean vial of 1 + 1 nitric acid
4 ¡À is 48 hours for 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration
Phenol 500 sealed brown one vial add sulphuric acid make pH 250 glass of active pharmaceutical of anion interface or plastic bottle (can't use the sanitizer, and has been developed by the reagent water) 4 ¡À 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration 48 hours
Cyanide 1000 plastic bottle add NaOH make pH> 12 of the water sample, the dark place, 4 ¡À is 7 days for 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration(if the water sample included sulphides, it was 24 hours)
Oil ( The own alkane is taking things out) The wide vials of 1000 are gathered (wide vials are cleaned with the sanitizer first before sampling, after the branch water is cleaned and then with the drip washing of own alkane, in order to get rid of and interfere materials) If the water sample is unable to analyse in 2 hours on sampling, to pH 28 days
Person who dissolve 200 iron filter with 1+1 nitric acid clean plastic bottle so as to the membrane filter paper of 0.45 ¦Ì m at once after not sampling, add nitric acid make 2 pH
Add nitric acid make water sample 2 pH Six price chromium and 300 plastic bottle dark place, 4 ¡À is 24 hours for 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration
Total mercury ( 2 notes) 500 or exceed the honest nitric acid with the thick nitric acid of content of low mercury in advance ( 1 + 1) The clean the following containers of solution:
1.Quartz or iron Fluorine dragon ( TFE)
2.Polypropylene or polyethylene material and having containers that polyethylene cover
3.Container of the boron silicon glass material Add thick nitric acid make 2 pH
Sulphide 100 glass or plastic bottle every water sample of 100 mL join 4 2N acetic acid zinc solution, add NaOH make 9 pH> of water sample, dark place, 2 7 days such as refrigeration such as 4 ¡À and then
Formaldehyde 1000 getting brown vial, sample bottle can't wash with ink gathered to plan in advance) 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration of 4 ¡À; When the water sample has enough and to spare the chlorine exists, add 100 mg chlorine ammonium sample should in one day of each water sample (whether groundwater should in one hour) Finish deriving and extracting, it must finish all analysing in 7 days to extract the liquid
Many chlorine unite 2000 benzene or by aluminium foil paper parcel,etc. photophobic vial splendid attire sample that way punish by getting brown vial, must enclose iron Fluorine dragon cover of cushion can't wash with water sample adopted to plan in advance; Add sulphuric acid or NaOH make pH of water sample value 5.0 - 9.0, 4 ¡À 2 refrigeration(whether if 72 hours can finish the extraction of the water sample after sampling, then the water sample can exempt and adjust pH value) The water sample should be finished extracting in 7 days, finish analysing in 40 days after extracting
1000 vial splendid attire samples dealt with with the brown vial or in such photophobic ways as the paper parcel of aluminium foil,etc. of agriculture chemical, must enclose iron Fluorine dragon cover of cushion can't wash with water sample adopted to plan in advance; Please stipulate in accordance with every detection method while keeping the method
The water sample should be finished extracting during 72 hours, measure the prescribed time-limit of square law to finish analysing in the announcement after extracting
1. Please depend on the detection method of total nitrogen (NIEA W423) in water Regulation.
2. Thickness it is low that mercury measure sample and the save way of,please in accordance with ' mercury detection method - can't oxidize / blow angry to catch in water /vapour atom firefly light not cold compose law (NIEA W331.50B) of only ' .
3. The measuring project that this form has not been listed, propose it with the glass or plastic bottle splendid attire, in the dark place, 2 degrees Centigrade of refrigeration of 4 ¡À, and analyse as quickly as possible.
4. Detailed sample and save method please consult executive organ environmental protection method of inspection, administration of announcement, only there are if its regulations with this person who does not conform of form, handle in accordance with the regulation of the method of inspection of the announcement.